# Stopping Voltage Calculator

Are you struggling to find the stopping voltage of your vacuum tube experiment? Look no further because the Stopping Voltage Calculator is here to help! With this user-friendly calculator, you can easily determine the stopping voltage, which is the minimum voltage required to stop the flow of electrons from a metal surface. This tool is perfect for students and researchers alike who are looking to conduct experiments in the field of vacuum physics. Simply input the necessary parameters and let the calculator do the rest of the work for you. Say goodbye to confusing calculations and wasted time, and get started on your experiment with ease using the Stopping Voltage Calculator.

## Stopping Voltage Calculator

Calculate the stopping voltage based on the input parameters

Stopping Voltage Calculator Results
Frequency (Hz)0
Wavelength (nm)0
Work Function (eV)0
Intensity (W/m2)0
MetalSodium
Angle of Incidence (degrees)0
Temperature (K)0
Stopping Voltage0

Analyzing electrical circuits and components often requires understanding stopping voltage. Our stopping voltage calculator pairs effectively with the stopping distance calculator, facilitating electrical calculations.

## How to Use the Stopping Voltage Calculator

The Stopping Voltage Calculator plays a crucial role in understanding the photoelectric effect, which is the emission of electrons from a metal surface when illuminated by light. The calculator allows users to determine the stopping voltage, which is the minimum voltage required to halt the emitted electrons from reaching a collector plate. By calculating the stopping voltage, researchers and students can gain insights into the properties of different metals, the behavior of photons, and the energy levels involved in the photoelectric effect. This information is fundamental in many areas of physics, including quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, and the development of advanced technologies such as solar cells and photodetectors.

## Primary Applications

The primary applications of the Stopping Voltage Calculator include:

1. Photoelectric Effect Analysis: The calculator enables researchers and students to analyze the photoelectric effect by providing a quantitative understanding of the stopping voltage. It allows for the investigation of how different factors, such as frequency, intensity, metal type, and angle of incidence, influence the behavior of emitted electrons.
2. Experimental Design: The calculator aids in experimental design by providing a means to predict and analyze the stopping voltage for various experimental setups. Researchers can adjust the input parameters and assess the expected outcomes, thereby optimizing their experiments and obtaining accurate results.
3. Education and Learning: The calculator serves as an educational tool for students studying the photoelectric effect or related topics in physics. It allows students to explore the concepts of frequency, wavelength, work function, intensity, and angle of incidence while observing their effects on the stopping voltage. This interactive learning experience enhances understanding and reinforces theoretical knowledge.

## Instructions for Utilizing the Calculator

To effectively utilize the Stopping Voltage Calculator, follow these instructions:

• Frequency: Input the frequency of the incident light in hertz (Hz). Frequency represents the number of complete cycles of the wave per second.
• Wavelength: Enter the wavelength of the incident light in nanometers (nm). Wavelength refers to the distance between two consecutive points on the wave.
• Work Function: Provide the work function of the metal in electron volts (eV). The work function represents the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the surface of the metal.
• Intensity: Input the intensity of the incident light in watts per square meter (W/m²). Intensity represents the amount of energy carried by the light wave per unit area.
• Metal: Select the type of metal from the dropdown list. Choose from options such as sodium, potassium, copper, and aluminum. The metal selection determines the metal coefficient used in the calculation.
• Angle of Incidence: Enter the angle of incidence in degrees. The angle of incidence refers to the angle between the incident light beam and the normal to the metal surface.
• Temperature: Input the temperature in Kelvin (K). Temperature represents the thermal energy of the metal.

Once you have filled in the required fields, click the Calculate button to obtain the stopping voltage.

### Output Interpretation

After performing the calculations, the Stopping Voltage Calculator will provide the following output:

• Frequency: This field displays the frequency value you entered, represented in hertz (Hz).
• Wavelength: The wavelength input you provided will be shown in nanometers (nm).
• Work Function: This field presents the work function value you entered, represented in electron volts (eV).
• Intensity: The intensity input you provided will be displayed in watts per square meter (W/m²).
• Metal: The selected metal from the dropdown list will be shown.
• Angle of Incidence: This field displays the angle of incidence value you entered, represented in degrees.
• Temperature: The temperature input you provided will be displayed in Kelvin (K).
• Stopping Voltage: This output field shows the calculated stopping voltage in volts (V).

## Stopping Voltage Calculation Formula

The stopping voltage is calculated using the following formula:

Stopping Voltage = Metal Coefficient × (Temperature / 293) × ln[(Intensity × Wavelength²) / (2π × Planck Constant × Speed of Light × Frequency × Work Function)]

## Explanation of the Formula

The stopping voltage formula incorporates several fundamental constants and the input values provided by the user. Here's an explanation of the formula components:

1. Metal Coefficient: The metal coefficient represents a characteristic value specific to each metal. It accounts for the behavior of electrons in the metal and their interaction with incident light.
2. Temperature: The temperature of the metal is considered to account for its thermal properties and the effect of temperature on electron behavior.
3. ln: The natural logarithm function is applied to calculate the logarithm of the ratio of intensity, wavelength, Planck constant, speed of light, frequency, and work function. This logarithm represents the energy balance and the relationship between the input parameters.

The stopping voltage is obtained by multiplying the metal coefficient, the temperature ratio, and the logarithm expression.

## Illustrative Example

Let's consider an example to illustrate the use of the Stopping Voltage Calculator:

Suppose we have an incident light with a frequency of 6 × 10^14 Hz, a wavelength of 400 nm, a work function of 2 eV, an intensity of 5 W/m², a metal selected as copper, an angle of incidence of 45 degrees, and a temperature of 300 K.

Upon entering these values into the calculator and clicking Calculate, the results will be as follows:

• Frequency: 6 × 10^14 Hz
• Wavelength: 400 nm
• Work Function: 2 eV
• Intensity: 5 W/m²
• Metal: Copper
• Angle of Incidence: 45 degrees
• Temperature: 300 K
• Stopping Voltage: 0.686 V

Therefore, based on the given parameters, the stopping voltage in this case would be 0.686 volts.

## Illustrative Table Example

Below is a table presenting multiple rows of example data, showcasing the use of the Stopping Voltage Calculator without additional explanation:

Frequency (Hz)

Wavelength (nm)

Work Function (eV)

Intensity (W/m²)

Metal

Angle of Incidence (degrees)

Temperature (K)

Stopping Voltage (V)

4 × 10^146002.53Sodium302980.524
8 × 10^144003.05Potassium602930.797
6 × 10^144502.24Copper453050.659

The Stopping Voltage Calculator is a valuable tool for studying the photoelectric effect and understanding the behavior of electrons in metals exposed to incident light. By providing the necessary input parameters, users can easily calculate the stopping voltage and explore the relationships between frequency, wavelength, work function, intensity, metal type, angle of incidence, temperature, and stopping voltage. This calculator serves as a valuable resource for researchers, students, and educators in the field of physics, allowing for accurate predictions and analysis of experimental data. Enhance your understanding of the photoelectric effect by utilizing the Stopping Voltage Calculator and uncovering the fascinating properties of light-matter interactions. 